INDEX:


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0. INTRODUCTION: Material properties:



Materials have different properties that make them useful for different jobs. Here are some properties that materials have.

Transparent or opaque

Transparent materials do let light through (you can see through them). Opaque materials do not let any light through (you cannot see through them).
Illustration of a window
Illustration of a window

Waterproof

Waterproof materials do not let water through and do not soak up water.
Illustration of an umbrella
Illustration of an umbrella

Absorbant

Absorbent materials soak up water and let water pass through them.
Image of a soaken woolly jumper
Image of a soaken woolly jumper

Strong or weak

Strong materials are very difficult to break. Weak materials break easily.
Illustration of a wooden chair
Illustration of a wooden chair

Flexible

Flexible materials are easy to bend.
Illustratio of a scarf
Illustratio of a scarf

Rigid

Rigid materials are difficult to bend.
Image of a red bicycle
Image of a red bicycle

Hard

Hard materials are difficult to scratch.
Illustration of a diamond
Illustration of a diamond

Magnetic

Magnetic materials are attracted to magnets.
Illustration of a magnet
Illustration of a magnet

Conductors

Some materials are good conductors of heat. This means heat can travel through them easily.

Some materials are good conductors of electricity. This means electricity can travel through them easily.
Illustration of a radiator
Illustration of a radiator




1. The three states of the matter




There are three main states of matter. They are SOLID, LIQUID, and GAS. Each of these states is also known as a phase. Each state has different properties. The state that matter is in depends on how much energy atoms have.
SOLID

Solid Table
Solid Table

Solids have three main properties:# It has a definite shape.
  1. It has a definite mass.
  2. It has a definite volume.

This means that a solid will always look the same, take up the same amount of space, and have the same amout of molecules in it.


To view an example of this, click on this Flash animation which shows the structure of ice crystals.

solid.gif
Liquids
Liquids


LIQUID

Liquids have three main properties:
  1. It does not have a definite shape.
  2. It has a definite mass.
  3. It has a definite volume.

This means that liquids will always take up the same amount of space and have the same amount of molecules in it. However, because it does not have a definite shape, it takes the shape of its container.


liquid.gif

In this Flash animation you'll see that liquid has particles that move past each other.
Gas
Gas


GAS

Gases have three main properties:
  1. It does not have a definite shape.
  2. It does not have a definite mass.
  3. It does not have a definite volume

This means that a gas does not always take up the same amount of space, nor does it weigh the same all the time. Like liquids, gases take the shape of their containers. However, they will fill the space they are given. That is why they don't always take up the same amount of space!!


gas.gif

In this Flash animation you'll see that a gas can really spread out.

Summarizing:
Water is a liquid. Liquid doesn´t have a definite form but have a definite volume
Ice is a solid. A solid has a definite form and a definite volume
Water vapour doesn´t have a definite form or a definite volume.

CHANGES OF STATE IN WATER:


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2. What is matter?


Matter is all around you. Your computer is matter. Air is matter. Water is matter. You are matter. In fact, you are made of the 3 major states of matter;solid, liquid and gas.

Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass.



ELEMENT
ATOM
COMPOUND
MIXTURE
- a substance that cannot be separated into a simpler substance. Elements are made of atoms.
- the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
- a substance made of 2 or more elements that are chemically joined.
- 2 or more substances that are mixed but not chemically joined.
Gold Ring
Gold Ring
Examples: Gold, Copper, Silver

Examples: salt, water, sugar
Example: fruit salad
When two or more atoms joint together they form a molecule external image moleculesm.gif


ICE is an example of SOLID.
The molecules are very close
together
WATER is an example of LIQUID.
The molecules are not so close
together and can move more than
they do in a solid.
WATER VAPOR is an example of GAS.
The molecules of gases can move freely.
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CHECK YOURSELF HOW THEY CAN MOVE: Solid-Liquid-Gas Comparison

3. Physical changes

The appearence of the matter changes, but the substance (chemical properties) remains. Examples of physical changes:
- We make an origami with a piece of paper: We change the shape, but not the substance of the paper.
- When we break a vase, that´s only a physical change.

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LOOK AT THAT GLOGSTER comparing physical and chemical changes:




4. Chemical changes

When a chemical change a new substance is produced and this new substance has different properties from the original. Examples of chemical changes:
- COMBUSTION: When we burnt WOOD: atoms in the wood react with the oxygen atoms in the air and they are transformed into ash and smoke.
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- OXIDATION: Atoms in iron react with the oxygen in the air and change into rust.
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- PUTREFACTION: When organic matter decomposes.
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DEMONSTRATION OF A CHEMICAL REACTION:


ACTIVITIES:

1. COMPLETE:
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2. QUIZ

3. REVISION: THE PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES
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4. MORE EXPERIMENTS



5. Let´s investigate a chemical change

1. ACID REACTS WITH OTHER MATERIALS:


2. HOW TO MAKE AN ICECREAM:



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6. Mixtures



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SEPARATING MIXTURES:



Four ways to separating a mixture
1. Using a sieve
A sieve is used to separate small solid particles from larger ones.
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Example: using a sieve to sparate gravel (small pebbles) from sandA sieve is a shallow tray with holes in.
The mixture is placed in the sieve which is then shaken from side to side.
The sand particles are much smaller than the gravel so fall though the holes in the sieve.
Using a sieve to separate sand from pebbles.

2. Using a magnet
Separates magnetic substances (eg substances containing iron) from non-magnetic substances.
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Example: separating iron filings from sand
Picture 1: we have a mixture of iron filings and sand on a piece of paper
Picture 2: When a magnet is slowly pulled away from the mixture the iron sticks to the magnet leaving the sand behind
Using a magnet to separate iron filings from sand

3. Filtering
Filtering is used to separate small solid particles from a liquid
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Example: Separating dirt from water by filtering
The dirty water is poured through a piece of filter paper.
Water particles pass through the tiny holes in the filter paper.
The particles of dirt, which are larger than the particles of water, get stuck in the holes and do not get through.
When the process is finished the dirt is trapped in the filter paper and the clear water has dripped through into the beaker below.
Any liquid that has been filtered is known as a filtrate
Using filter paper to remove dirt from water

. 4. Evaporation
Evaporation is used when we want to get back a substance that has been dissolved
external image evaporation.gif
Example: Getting salt out of salty waterThe salty water is put into an evaporating basin (or any shallow dish such as a saucer).
It is left in a warm place and the water evaporates leaving behind the salt crystals.
We see the salt crystals starting to form at the edge of the salty water but eventually all the water would go, leaving behind just the salt.
Evaporating water from salty water to get the salt

COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES: A GREAT WEB FROM THE BBC (have a look at it)



7. Mass and volume

2. HOW TO MEASURE MASS AND VOLUMEN OF A SOLID AND A LIQUID




DENSITY:


QUIZLET: MATTER

8. The three Rs



9. A science investigation report
Design an useful object using recycled material
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10. Vocabulary and expressions


LINGUISTIC CONTENT

§ Topics:The three states of matter; What is matter?; What is a physical change?; What is a chemical change?; Chemical change; Mixtures; Mass and volume

Composition of matter:particles, atoms, molecules, mass, volume, space, element, compound, organisation, arrangement, mixtures, pure substances, heterogeneous, homogeneous

States of matter and their properties:solid, liquid, gas, definite / indefinite form/ volume, shape, ice, water vapour, expand, compress, heats up, cools down

Physical and chemical changes:freezing, boiling, evaporating, melting, condensing, appearance, chemical properties, reversible, irreversible, temperature, solidification, reacts, wood, burn, air, ash, smoke, combustion, metals, iron, rust, oxidation, artificial, plastic, petroleum, acids

Mixture separation:filtration, evaporation, magnetic separation, crystallize

Mass and volume measurements:kilograms (kg), millilitres (ml), litres (l), grams per millilitre (g / ml)

Rubbish: recycle, reduce, reuse, packaging, waste, bin, throw away, biodegradable, non-biodegradable, compost, environment, plastic bags, burnt, buried

  • Key structures:

Comparatives:A book has more mass than a rubber.

Polite discussion:I’m not sure. I don’t think...

REVISION SUMMARY:


A little help in Spanish: